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Glossary of IT Terms

Glossary of IT Terms

Informatics terms and their meanings are given here

 

GLOSSARY OF INFORMATICS TERMS

 

 

 

What is a 3D Printer: 3D Printer technology, which is accepted as Additive Manufacturing, is a rapid prototyping tool that you can use to transform the 3D objects you design in the computer environment into concrete. 3D designs saved as STL files are sent to the 3D Printer and transformed into reality layer by layer.

What is a Smart Watch: Smart watches carry a processor and computer circuit inside them. They can do all the operations that a typical phone does.

What is a Smartphone: It is an advanced mobile communication device designed by adding the features of PDAs, a product of the computer world, to the classic features of the mobile phone. Smartphones have mobile operating systems.

What is Smart TV: It is the general name given to televisions with an operating system that allows connecting to the internet and running specially developed applications through television.

What is a computer (PC): It is an electronic device that takes the information entered by the users into the data input unit, processes the information entered with the processing unit, stores the results in itself, and outputs the results of the processed data to the user with the output unit when requested.

What is Blu-ray Disc: Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a data storage format on a digital optical disc. It is designed to replace the DVD format. It can store high definition (720p and 1080p) and ultra high definition (2160p) video.

What is CD (Compact Disc): CD stores data or music in electronic environment using numerical values.

What is a floppy disk: A floppy disk is a magnetic data storage medium created by placing a plastic disk coated with iron oxide on it, used to carry the information in the computer, into a plastic container.

What is a Notebook PC (Laptop): A notebook or laptop is a portable type of personal computer, usually consisting of two parts, a screen and a keyboard . A laptop combines the components of a desktop computer, such as the keyboard, mouse , and screen, in one piece.

What is DVD: DVD is short for “Digital Versatile Disc”. Compared to CD, it has a much higher recording capacity.

What is a mouse: Also known as a pointer. It serves to move the arrow sign on the screen, that is, the cursor. It allows us to give commands to the computer thanks to the left button, right button and wheel on it. It can be wireless or wired. Optical and laser mice are used today.

What is Flash Memory: Flash Memory is a type of memory that can keep its stored data even when the source power is cut off, and can be electronically erased and reprogrammed.

What is HDD (Hard Disk (Harddisk)): It is the place where information is permanently stored in the computer. When the computer is turned off, the information on it is not deleted. It is formed by the assembly of magnetic disks. They come in a variety of sizes and capacities.

What is a speaker: It is the hardware that allows us to hear the sounds played on the computer. Several speakers come together to form the sound system. For example 2+1, 5+1 and 7+1. +1 here denotes the subwoofer box where low frequency sounds are played.

What is a Client: Client is the user computers that receive service from server computers on a network. Access rights to information are determined by the server.

What is a cartridge: The word cartridge, which has passed into our language from French, can be used in many products. The body that preserves one or more of the materials in it and enables it to be used when necessary is called a cartridge.

What is a keyboard: It is a typewriter-like hardware that allows us to enter information into the computer. The keyboard is named according to the letter in the upper left corner. For example: If there is the letter F in the upper left corner, it is called “F keyboard”, if there is the letter Q, it is called “Q keyboard”.

What is a headphone: It is the hardware that transmits the sounds played on the computer only to the ears of the listener.

What is Micro SD Card: Micro SD is also known as the type with the most powerful features among the cards in its class. The most important advantages are that it is small in structure and its data transfer rate is faster than others.

What is a microphone: It provides the transfer and recording of sounds to the computer.

What is a modem: It is the hardware that enables to connect to the Internet. There are wired or wireless versions.

What is a Game Console: It is the hardware that provides control in games. For example, steering wheel, brake pedal controls in a car racing game.

What is SD Card: SD Card is an abbreviation for “Secure Digital Memory Card”. It is a memory card standard.

What is SSD (Solid Stade Disk): SSD is a data storage device that will replace mechanical disks developed to store data. Increasing RPM (revolutions per minute) in mechanical discs has brought more performance and temperature problems. The techniques used in solving problems have now reached their limit. Mechanical disks are now gradually being replaced by SSD drives, which are completely different from themselves and have a very high potential.

What is a Server: A server is a computer or software that manages access to a central resource or service on a network. In simpler terms, a server is a type of computer program that responds to requests made by another program called a client.

What is Switch: Network devices used for computers to connect with each other. Network connections are provided by connecting a switch with a cable from the network card to enable computers on the same network to communicate with each other.

What is a Tablet PC: A tablet computer, or simply a tablet, is a mobile computer with a display circuit and a battery in a single unit. Tablets are devices that can detect finger-pencil movements, can be combined with a mouse and keyboard, and are equipped with sensors such as cameras and accelerometers.

What is a scanner: It is the hardware that scans a picture, text or shape and transfers a copy to the computer. The printer does the opposite.

What is a Portable Hard Disk: The storage areas that we can use like USB memory outside the computer case, such as the Hard disk (hard disk) we use in our computer, are called “External, Portable, External” Disk. Our purpose of using external disks is to lighten the memory on our computer and to save high-dimensional movies, music, pictures, programs, etc. It is useful for archiving our data such as such as

What is technology: It is the knowledge and ability necessary to make or produce auxiliary tools and tools suitable for the needs of human beings. Technology is also information that covers production methods, tools, equipment and tools related to an industry. Technology as a human activity emerged before science and engineering in human history. There are also views that technology is the practical aspect of science.

What is toner: In laser printers, the part where the ink is stored is called toner. These are the tools that allow different colors to be printed on the paper surface in copiers in printers.

What is a Web Camera: It is the hardware that is generally used for video calls over the internet. Photo shooting is possible.

What is a printer: It is the hardware that transfers the pictures, texts, figures and graphics produced on the computer to the paper. There are inkjet, laser and dot matrix types according to the technology it uses.

 

HARDWARE TERMS

What is the Motherboard: It is one of the main and most important parts of the computer on which the cards and all other hardware are mounted. Some hardware is attached to the motherboard, and some to the motherboard inputs with cables. It has data paths on it. All units communicate with each other through the data bus on the motherboard.

What is a Computer Case: The case in which the internal hardware of the computer is located ensures that these parts are protected and kept together. We can think of the safe as the skeleton in our body.

What is hardware: It is the name given to each of the electronic parts that make up the computer. The parts of the computer that can be seen and touched are called hardware . The hardware can be either outside of the case or inside it. The hardware inside the case is called internal hardware, and the hardware outside the case is called external hardware.

What is Screen (Monitor): The screen allows us to see the operations and results on the computer. There are tube (CRT), LCD and LED screen types.

What is a Graphics Card: It is the part that enables all operations on a computer to be displayed on the monitor. It transfers the image to the monitor thanks to the inputs on it. The computer that does not have a video card or that is faulty will not boot.

What is Ethernet (Network) Card: It is the electronic circuit that allows the computer to connect to the network and exchange data and communicate.

What is a Power Source: It is the hardware that provides the necessary power (electric current) to all parts of the computer. It is the hardware unit that reduces the power of the city electricity coming to the computer and distributes it so that the hardware inside the case can use it.

What is the Processor (Central Processing Unit (CPU)): It is the most important hardware element. It is the hardware where arithmetic and logical operations are performed in the computer. It is also known as the brain of the computer. It processes the data received from the input units and sends the results to the output units. When it comes to the speed of the computer, the most important source of speed that should come to mind is the speed of the processor.

What is Uninterruptible Power Supply: It provides additional power to the computer in case of power failure. Thus, both the computer is not damaged and we can save our work.

What is RAM (Main) Memory (Temporary Memory): When the computer is turned on, the operating system and necessary programs are loaded into RAM. These memories are where data is temporarily stored. Programs run here as long as the computer is on. When the computer is turned off, the information on it is deleted. The size of RAM affects the speed of the computer.

What is a Sound Card: It is a card that allows the computer to process the sound and then transfer this sound to the user.

What is 3G-4G-5G: G stands for “Generation”. Wireless communication technologies. Data transmission rates are different from each other. 3G offers 28 Megabits per second, 4G 100 Megabits and 5G 1000 Megabits. On the other hand, 4.5G is due to the mention of 4G and 5G together.

 

INTERNET TECHNOLOGY TERMS

What is Network: The environment formed by the physical connection of personal computers to each other is called a network.

What is a Search Engine: Search engines are the name given to wide-content search sites called crawling mechanisms on the web that allow us to query the information sought on the internet. The most widely used search engines are Google, Yandex, Bing.

What is Cyber ​​Crimes: The crimes committed in electronic environment by using modern communication tools such as computers, tablets, mobile phones or shopping tools such as pos machines are called cyber crimes.

What is a blog: It is a web-based system where people write what they have learned, what they know and what they want to share.

What is a blogger: It is among the content management systems that have become extremely popular and interesting on the internet in a short time. Bloggers are called Bloggers.

What is Online-Offline: The word online has been translated into our language as online, that is, it means on the line. If a website is actively working, it can be called online, if it is closed and inaccessible, it can be called offline.

What is Download: It is used to download data from the internet.

What is E-Mail: E-mail or e-mail, a digital letter sent over the Internet.

What is Fiber Internet: Fiber internet is a technology in which high-speed internet access is truly provided thanks to cables (fiber optic) from which an insulated glass fiber environment is obtained. Fiber internet, which is used in almost all modern countries in the world, offers home users the opportunity to use internet at speeds up to 1,000 megabits.

What is the Internet: It is a very large network consisting of computer networks spread all over the world and allowing computers to communicate in a common language.

What is Internet Browser: Internet browser is a program that allows us to access all the information contained in the Internet resource. By typing the address of the site you want to visit into the browser, you will be directed to that address. Internet Explorer, Mozzilla Firefox, Safari and Chrome are the most preferred internet browsers today.

What is a link: Codes that connect websites to each other, known as link and link in Turkish, and Link in English.

What is NFC: Near Field Communication; It is a short-range, wireless, personal communications space technology designed to interact with customer electronics, mobile devices, and computers. Near Field Communication works using magnetic field induction and has tag and reader functionality.

What is Cyber ​​Security: It is the evaluation, testing , consultancy and training services for the measures to be taken to ensure the security of the assets that interact with the information (application, system, network, etc.) in the institutions.

What is a Cyber ​​Attack: Hackers or hacker groups specialized in the field of computer and internet, such as banks, police, Gendarmerie, government, individuals, companies, etc. It is an attack that they do with the aim of harming sites or computers.

What is Social Media: It is a living platform unlike traditional media. The biggest difference from newspapers, TV and other printed media is simultaneous information sharing. The level of interaction brought by two-way communication is far ahead of traditional media.

What is SPAM Mail: The simplest definition of SPAM mail is advertising mails sent to you without your request.

What is Upload: It is used to upload data from your own computer to another computer over the internet.

What is Database: Database or concept is a general name given to systems where data is stored according to a certain order. Today, all private or public organizations keep the information they contain in the database.

What is a Web Site: Pages on the web; It is a collection of documents covering all pages that convey information or provide services to its visitors in the form of text, visuals and animations.

What is Wi-Di: Intel’s Wireless Display technology allows you to effortlessly project the image from your mobile device onto the big screen. Whether it’s movies, photos or music, you can quickly transfer any content to your HD television wirelessly.

What is Wi-Fi: Abbreviation for “Wireles Fidelity”, which means wireless devotion or wireless connection. It is a compatibility indicator that shows that Wi-Fi products can provide wireless connectivity and is determined according to IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.11n standards.

What is Wireless: To explain its Turkish meaning; It can be translated as Radio or Radio Wave. Communication without the use of cables means transfer. It is mostly used to connect to the internet without using a cable, to exchange files from one mobile phone to another mobile phone.

What is WWW (World Wide Web): WWW, that is, it is a large network spread all over the world where computers in the world can communicate with each other and share images, sounds and data. Each website has its own www. It has an address that starts with

What is Youtuber: Youtuber is simply the name given to people who actively use the video sharing network Youtube, upload videos and run channels.

 

DATA-DATA TRANSMİSSİON

 

What is a byte: A byte (byte) is a memory measurement unit in electronics and computer science that usually includes the values ​​1 or 0 across an 8-bit string and is independent of the type of information recorded. A byte represents any letter in an 8-bit encoding based on the Latin alphabet.

What is Digital Data: Digital data, digital data or digital signal, digitized signal. Certain samples are taken from an analog signal and a digital signal is created that is not the exact equivalent of the analog signal. It is obtained by changing the way the data in the input is stored or transferred.

What is Full HD (2K): It means higher quality and higher resolution image or high clarity than HD image. It refers to 1920×1080 pixel resolution.

What is Gigabyte (GB): Gigabyte is a unit of measurement used in computers, meaning 1024 megabytes (1024*1024*1024 bytes).

What is HD: The letters HD are the abbreviation of High Definition words in English. The Turkish word equivalent means High Definition, that is, higher quality and high resolution image or high clarity. It refers to a resolution of 1280×720 pixels.

What is HDMI: High definition multimedia interface, or HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) for short, is an interface developed in 2003 to digitally transfer audio and video data without compression.

What is Kilobyte (KB): Kilobyte is a unit of measurement used in computers, meaning 1024 bytes.

What is a megabyte (MB): Megabyte is a unit of measurement used in computers, meaning 1024 kilobytes (1024*1024 bytes).

What is a terabyte (TB): Terabyte is a unit of measurement used in computers, meaning 1024 gigabytes (1024*1024*1024*1024 bytes).

What is Ultra HD (4K): It means higher quality and higher resolution image or high clarity than Full HD image. It refers to the resolution of 3840×2160 pixels.

What is USB: It is the abbreviation of “Universal Serial Bus” in English. USB in Turkish is “Universal Serial Bus”. USB is a serial connection format that enables external hardware to connect with a computer.

 

SOFTWARE TERMS

What is Open Source Code: Open source software or open source software or open source software is software that is open to anyone who wants the source code. The distinguishing feature of such software is that it gives the user the freedom to change the software. Open source software is adaptable, robust, fast and secure.

What is Flow Chart: Work flow charts are structures that make it easier to work on established algorithms. They also make the algorithm easy to understand by other developers. Transferring an established algorithm to the work flow chart is a very easy task. The more detailed the work flow chart, the easier it is to eliminate and improve the errors on the established algorithm.

What is an algorithm: It means the way designed to solve a certain problem or achieve a certain goal, a set of finite operations defined in mathematics and computer science to do a job, starting from an initial state and ending in a clearly defined end state.

What is Android: It is an operating system made by Google. It generally comes pre-installed on various smartphones and tablets and allows users to use Google’s own services such as Search, Youtube, Maps, Gmail and more.

What is antivirus: Antivirus is a virus program developed against viruses in the computer. Viruses can change the system structures of the files they infect. For example, the file can be *.exe, *.com, *.doc, *.xls, *.bat. The virus corrupts the extension of the infected file, making that file unusable. The task of the antivirus is to remove these viruses from their hiding places and to ensure that the structure of this file is not corrupted.

What is Backup: In general terms, backup is the name given to the set of files that ensure that the basic units that make your computer system functional, the software running on it and the stored data are kept in multiple copies in order to prevent the interruption of work in case of failure, error and damage or to prevent them from being lost irreversibly. .

What is BIOS: BIOS (Basic Input Output System) enables the system to boot by controlling the input and output devices. BIOS is non-volatile software stored in ROM memory. The software, which allows us to use many features of the motherboard, establishes a connection between our system and our hardware.

What is Boot: If we translate Boot into Turkish, its equivalent is “boot”. In other words, it is the application that specifies which directory the operating system is in and is part of the BIOS.

What is Trial Version: It is the version that is not licensed yet, given for testing and will be closed after a certain period of time.

What is a Driver: A driver (often referred to as Driver) is software that allows your computer to communicate with hardware devices. Without drivers, devices connected to your computer (for example, mouse or external hard drive) will not work properly.

What is an Emoji: The “E” in the emoji word means visual, and “Moji” means character. You can perceive it as a reflection of the person’s expression on the virtual.

What is format: It means installing the operating system on a computer. The word means formatting.

What is Hack-Hacker: A hacker or hacker is a person who enters personal computers or computers and networks belonging to various institutions and organizations without permission. This intrusion is called “hacking”.

What is iOS: It is derived from Mac OS X. There are 4 layers in iOS: Core OS layer, Core Services layer, Media layer and Cocoa Touch layer. The software occupies 2500 MB of space inside the device. Due to the nature of the iOS operating system, applications cannot be installed from anywhere other than the Apple App Store and iTunes.

What is an Operating System: It is a set of software that runs on the computer, manages hardware resources, and provides common services for various application software.

What is code: It is the name given to the sentences that contain certain situations in the software language. These sentences have many software functions such as how to react to which situation, which elements will be called, which situations will occur at which moments. Even the page you are reading this article on is composed of hundreds of lines of code .

What is coding: Coding, in other words, programming literally means the whole of the operations that are foreseen to be done according to certain conditions and order. Programming is defined as the whole or a part of the sequence of commands written to the computer or the mechanisms consisting of electronic circuits and mechanical systems to perform an operation.

What is Linux: It is an open source, free and free (without support) operating system kernel developed with reference to Unix in an intellectual and technical sense. The source code of the kernel can be freely distributed, modified and used under the GNU General Public License.

What is Licensed Software: It is software that can be used by a person or a group whose usage rights have been purchased or a contract has been signed.

What is Macintosh OS: Apple Inc. It is an operating system designed by Macintosh computers. Mac OS X is originally based on Darwin, an open source operating system built on BSD and the Mach microkernel.

What is Pardus: It is a Linux distribution operating system developed by TUBITAK in Turkey. The name Pardus comes from the scientific name of the Anatolian leopard, Panthera pardus tulliana.

What is reset: Restarting the computer is called reset.

What is root: A user account without root privileges cannot change many systemic things on the device. Android phone and tablet manufacturers prevent us from giving full control to the device by closing root privileges to users. As a general statement, rooting or rooting actually means to provide root privileges to the phone or tablet.

What is Setup-Install: It is the process of installing any program on the computer.

What is Uninstall: It is the process of removing a program installed on the computer.

What is a virus: Unauthorized pieces of code and small software that threaten the integrity, accessibility, confidentiality of existing user files, software and/or operating system on the computer, transferred to the computer environment without the user’s knowledge/approval are generally referred to as viruses. Computer viruses are small software programs designed to spread from one computer to another and interfere with computer operation.

What is Windows: Microsoft Windows (window) is a family of operating systems most widely used in the world, developed by the Microsoft company, which approaches the user with graphical interfaces and visual messages, eliminating the need to type from the keyboard such as running software and giving commands.

What is software: They are the programs required to use the hardware. They tell you how the computer will work. They are installed on the computer to perform a specific action. Any program installed on a computer is software. Software is the general name given to all programs that allow users to do their work on the computer. software; They are divided into two main groups as System Software and Application Software.

 

TECHNOLOGY, INDUSTRY AND INNOVATION TERMS

What is R&D: It is the creative work carried out on a systematic basis to increase the knowledge of culture, people and society and to use this to design new processes, systems and applications, including software.

What is Augmented Reality: Augmented reality (AR) is a live direct or indirect view of a new perception environment created by combining computer-generated elements such as audio, video, graphics or GPS data, augmented and animated by sensory input, with the physical, real-world environment.

What is Cloud Technology: It is an online storage service that provides operational convenience with web-based applications that do not require any installation in its simplest form.

What is Industry 4.0: Industry 4.0 or the 4th Industrial Revolution is a collective term that includes many contemporary automation systems, data exchanges and production technologies. This revolution is a set of values ​​consisting of the internet of things, services of the internet and cyber-physical systems.

What is innovation: It means the introduction of new methods in the social, cultural and administrative environment. Webster defines innovation as a new and different result. Although it is tried to be met with words such as innovation and renewal in Turkish, its meaning is too broad to be expressed in a single word.

What is Internet of Things (IoT): Products developed under the concept of Internet of Things generally work with mobile devices and tablets. Each object has an application that can be accessed via mobile, so that objects can transmit notifications to applications thanks to this application. For example, Nest, the smart product purchased by Google, allows you to control the temperature of the house through the application when you are not at home. You can do this by integrating the application with the Nest placed at home. Examples of the Internet of Things; Nest, Hapifork, Micoach Smart Top, Smart Things, Babolat, Edyn, Dropcam, Ingenious…

What is a patent: It is a document that certifies an invention. With this document, he has been given the right to produce a product that was deemed necessary after the development of the industry and to be produced in series, only by the first manufacturer in accordance with certain norms, and to protect the invention from theft and imitations.

What is Virtual Reality: Technically, the term virtual reality is used for computer-based 3D environments where individuals experience the feeling of being there. Users are involved in virtual environments through various peripherals (helmet display, etc.). From the moment he enters that environment, the user is disconnected from reality and has the feeling of being in the environment where virtual reality is created. In order for users to “really” experience this experience, virtual reality designs must be flawless; otherwise, the weak “feeling of reality” created will cause the user to not be able to fully experience this experience.

What is simulation: Simulation or difference is used to mean the like or fake of something in a non-technical sense. Technically, it is the imitation of the operation of a real world process or system over time. It is a model of a system or process that includes defined relationships between system objects.

What is Artificial Intelligence: It is the ability of a computer or computer-controlled robot to perform various activities in a similar way to intelligent creatures. The word AI, which is an acronym for the English artificial intelligence concept, is also frequently used in informatics.

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