Glossary of printing terms listed here
What is the printing press? : Printing houses, also known as printing houses, are organizations that undertake the task of producing and reproducing all kinds of printed materials such as books, magazines, catalogues, newspapers, brochures, labels, packaging, using various printing techniques. They print on products such as plastic, fabric, etc.
What is a Printer? : A person who deals with the preparation and printing of printing and printing works and takes this job as a profession.
What is Printing? : All the processes of arranging, preparing for printing and duplicating written and visual materials related to a material to be printed, taking into account certain artistic characteristics, are called printing.
What is Printed? : Printed , printed.
What is a Printed Document? : Documents printed for use in more official works.
What is Agency? : The concept of agency in the printing industry mostly refers to the organizations that carry out the prepress preparation of the materials to be printed, produce and sell ideas rather than physical production. Agencies are generally related to the advertising sector. They prepare advertising campaigns and commercials, it is a sector directly related to marketing. Today, many printing houses carry out many processes from design to printing.
What is a Publisher? : Organizations that follow the production, distribution and marketing of books for specific areas of expertise are called publishing houses. Publishing houses, like agencies, are the most important customers of printing houses. Most of the publishing houses work with a printing house for the film, assembly, mold, printing and binding processes after the typesetting and design of the books they will print.
What is cellophane, lacquer? : Businesses that apply cellophane or lacquer to the surface of some works such as brochures, files, book covers, cardboard packaging, which have been printed, both for aesthetic concerns and to make them more durable and not be affected by water, oil and sun rays before binding.
What is a Bookbinder (Bookbinding)? : It is called the businesses where the printing, creasing, threshing, sewing, cover-mounting and similar operations are carried out. There are bookbinding houses that provide services on transactions.
What is draft work? : Book size, type of paper to be used, number of colors etc. After the features are determined, it is obligatory to carry out a preliminary study that will indicate the order and place of the written and visual elements that will be included in the book and give an idea about the use of letterpress graphic elements (font size, character, column width, etc.). These preliminary studies can include a series of preparation stages, from rough drafts of ideas to detailed sketches that can be seen on computer printouts. The drafting process is one of the most important parts of the design.
What are typesetting, graphics, proofreading? : We call typesetting the process of rewriting the texts on a template page to be created in the computer environment for our book, the draft layout of which has been prepared, in accordance with the grammar rules, using typography suitable for the characteristics of the target audience and the type of the book. Plain texts, titles, spots, etc. that follow the typesetting stage. visual elements (photos, pictures, illustrations, colors, etc.) We call the work of editing by considering certain principles as graphic design. The stage of correcting typographical errors and inaccuracies related to visual arrangement, which is done when the design work is completed on the printout of the pages, is called proofreading. During the proofreading phase, the paper outputs of the work are usually checked by the customer representative or the customer (the proofreader in publishing houses), the errors are indicated with a pencil and the erroneous parts are corrected again in the computer environment.
Movie : Our book, whose layout, design has been completed and has been checked and corrected, is now ready for printing. For printing, a printing mold must be prepared that will be connected to the printing machine and will work without any damage. In order to prepare the printing plate, the (transparent) images of the films of the pages must first be obtained. For books that do not require photo printing, that is, they consist entirely of text, it is often sufficient to get reverse output from a laser printer on transparent papers called tracing paper. Since our book is in color, Cyan blue, Magenta red, Yellow (yellow) and Contrast , which are settled in our language with the abbreviation CMYK It will be necessary to obtain films of black colors, which are expressed as it is possible to separate the colors of the films, that is, to obtain four separate films containing these colors, to make four montages from these films, to draw four molds and to print each mold on paper with the relevant color. ; First, blue is printed, and secondly, when yellow is pressed on a blue print, blue, yellow and green tones are obtained. When Magenta ink is printed on these, purples, dark blues and other intermediate tones are formed, and the feeling of depth and clarity in the photograph is increased by contrast. printing is also called trigromy printing.
Assembling: Your books are printed on sheet paper in standard sizes, not sheet by sheet in offset printing houses. Here, an arrangement is made so that when this paper in sheet form is folded appropriately, successive page numbers appear. Here, the most frequently used unit of measurement is the form. It consists of 16 pages and in multi-page (such as a book, magazine) work, planning and cost calculation is always done on the forms. Here, the assembly process consists of sticking the films of the work to be printed on a transparent layer called an astrologer, based on the layout of the work to be printed. If the work to be printed is in two colors It will be necessary to make two separate montages and Trigromi to make 4 montages. An expression such as Trigromi +custom is used to express that a special fifth color such as gilding will be printed, except for four colors.
Blueprint proofing: The finished work is prepared for the final control before printing by being exposed to blueprint paper and left in ammonia vapor. In this way, the work on the montage is transferred to the blueprint paper, the blueprint paper is folded according to the layout. It is to determine whether the page numbers follow each other and to reduce the risk of error. After the “printable” approval is received by the customer on the blueprint proofing, the pattern preparation process begins.
Mold: Assemblies are finally exposed on metal plates whose surface has been sensitized to light. Offset printing plates, which are widely used in our country, are called ozosol and tif.
Print Proofing: A method of watching how a job will look when printed. The proof is a sample taken from the print working with the actual paper, ink sets and images that will be used in the final reproduction. Today, color proofing can be taken before printing with digital proofing systems.
Printing: After the color proof is taken and the suitability of the colors is decided, the serial printing of our book is started. Depending on the features of the printing machine (such as monochrome, two-color, four-color, six-color, front and back printing), the printing time and quality may vary.
Print protection: applied to the surface of printed materials such as books, magazine covers, brochures, packages, files, which are open to external influences; Processes whose primary purpose is to protect the printed surface from elements such as oil, moisture, sunlight, and whose secondary purpose is to give the print surface an aesthetic feature by giving a gloss or matte effect are called printing surface protection processes. The most commonly used forms of print protection; varnish, lacquer and cellophane applications.
Binding – Binding: After our book cover and jerseys are printed, they go through some processes to turn into a book. The lid is tapered. In other words, the book spine area is clarified by making traces on the parts that will come on the spine. The inner pages in the form of layers are folded in creasing machines. The crimped jerseys are brought together in order and this process is called “threshing”. Blended book forms are attached to each other and to the cover by thread stitching, spiral or American binding systems. After the capping process is completed, the mouth parts are shaved. The book is ready to pack.
Counting and Shrinking: The books to be delivered to the customer will be packed in the desired numbers. This work is done either by hand or by packing machines called shirink. Shrink machines wrap plastic foil on the outside of the desired number of books, heat the edges of the foil and prevent the printed products from getting dispersed and wet.
What is Graph? : The art of placing letters, words, sentences, photographs, forms, colors on paper with a taste and proportion and creating novelty and attractiveness in this placement is called graphics. It has passed into our language from the word “Grapnein” (to write) in ancient Greek.
What is Design? : It is a creative action with a specific purpose based on planning.
What is Graphic Design? : It is defined as the design of the read and watched images. In graphic design, visual elements create a regular and stable structure when placed in the same direction as the border lines, and a dynamic and energetic structure when placed in the opposite direction.
Communication: It is an exchange of feelings, thoughts, behaviors and information that takes place between two people or groups of people called the sender and the receiver.
Graphic Communication: It is defined as the exchange of information consisting of images. Articles, pictures and photographs are the main graphic communication tools. Producing a message in clear, economical and aesthetic ways is the primary purpose of graphic communication. Being economical in graphic communication means that the least possible number of visual images can convey as much information as possible. Example: We understand male/female toilets or entrance and exit graphic images.
Elements of Graphic Design: It can be expressed as line, tone, color, texture, form, size, direction . Lines convey in some messages, according to their characters and as links to their positions. For example ; The horizontal line gives the expression of stillness, the vertical line the dignity, the diagonal line the vitality, the curved line the elegance. Tones are generally obtained by completing the visual image with the halftone reproduction technique. Tone and line are the elements that create contrast in design. Color is one of the building blocks that make up a design. Colors have different effects on the viewer. Some of them are personal, some are generalizable. For example ; The fact that warm colors are stimulating and cold colors are relaxing and resting can be evaluated as the generalizable effects of colors. Texture can be called a formal layout based on repetitions on a surface. For example; a wood, marble etc. used on the floor. texture… A graphic design product is formed by the combination of visual elements of different sizes. The direction of linear, typographic and visual elements on a design surface is important. For example: The photograph of a person in a newspaper article should look towards the relevant article.
Target Audience: It is an audience whose interests and characteristics are defined in detail. It can be expressed as a group that is directly or indirectly affected by the behaviors, decisions and practices of a person or institution.
Art Director: Copywriter, photographer, graphic designer, customer representative, etc., who must be in advertising agencies. A person responsible for effective advertising production and design.
Who is Graphic Designer? : Graphic designers, who are one of the professions such as painters and sculptors in the field of visual arts, arrange the material to be printed for printing within the framework of aesthetic rules; are the artists who make the texts and visual elements attractive by using a graphic language suitable for the nature of the work and thus create an effective communication environment. Today, graphic designers need to be closely interested in psychology and communication sciences, as well as art knowledge and manual skills. Graphic design has become an important branch of art. In the world and in our country; graphic arts branches were opened in fine arts departments.
What is Sketch (Draft)? : Sketches created with charcoal or blind text and pictures showing how various elements are placed on the page. Drafts can be handled in two stages as idea drafts and developed drafts. Idea sketches are the name given to the sketches produced on the bus, at home, in the park or anywhere related to the product to be printed. Developed drafts, on the other hand, are drafts created with real printing materials in the real dimensions of the work in the computer environment or with blind text and pictures on light tables on a suitable substrate, for a few examples selected from the idea drafts. The font and size to be used in these drafts, the location and size of the photograph, if any, the background color, etc. elements are arranged as if they were to be printed and presented to the customer.
What is Layout? (Arrangement) : Placing graphic elements in a balanced way within a certain frame. A kind of outline. Page layout, page layout.
What is Pikage? : Prepared for graphics ; The sticking of pictures, texts, emblems and photographs on millimetric paper or picture paper by cutting them with a miter. This was done before computers entered the printing world. Until the 1990s, many printing houses and publishing houses used to work with picajeurs. Today, picking is not done.
What is Illustration? : Visual elements are more dominant than verbal elements such as title, slogan or text; It is the whole of graphic design elements in which visual expression elements are used effectively.
Slogan: Generally, it should consist of 2-3 words ideally for retention in memory.
What is an Emblem? : They are striking texts consisting of a single line, written to promote a product, service or idea. The number of words in slogans should not exceed 5-6. Especially in poster design, they are symbols created with abstract or objective images or letters that do not show the feature of words that give an identity to organizations that produce products or services.
What is a Logo? : Symbols that are created by combining two or more typographic characters to be read as words and that have the characteristics of a brand or emblem promoting a product, organization or service.
Symbolic Sign: Signs that symbolize a product, service, idea or object. Traffic signs, transportation, hospital, no smoking signs, flags and pennants are examples of symbolic signs.
What is Trademark ®? : Descriptive symbols used by manufacturers to distinguish a product from similar products. Format: A general term for the appearance of a format, measurement, or publication.
What is Perspective? : The technique of drawing objects as they appear on a surface.
What is Original? : In many sources and in daily life , the correct spelling and expression of the word ” Original” is “Original” . A dash or halftone picture that is scanned in scanners to be reproduced by printing, or is filmed in a reproduction workshop.
Gradient: Black to white screen – gradation; The process of changing from a dark color to a light color or from one color to another. It is mostly preferred in different ground trials.
Institutional Identity: The image that is formed by the use of the same style in paper printing documents such as business cards, correspondence, business newspapers of an institution or company and that distinguishes it from other companies. To be consistent, all documents use the same font, style, letter and line spacing, and the same type of spacing. These parts are in the same places in all broadcasts.
Institutional Identity File: A file containing samples of printed documents (such as logo, emblem, invoice, waybill, receipt, envelope, letterhead, business card) prepared to strengthen the image of an institution.
What is Brochure? : Colored or single color booklet or leaflet with single, double, triple or accordion folds for promotional and informative purposes. Due to its small size and portability, it is often included in the promotional tools of companies.
What is a Banner? : A kind of announcement that is printed on only one side of the paper in black / white or color and hangs on the walls. Posters are divided into indoor and outdoor posters depending on the environment they meet with the target audience. Outdoor posters, with their large sizes, meet the target audience on the wall surfaces and on the billboards. Watch times are very short. Indoor posters are hung in halls, lobbies and corridors. Therefore, they have the opportunity to be watched for a long time. Watch time must be taken into account.
What is Billboard? : A large-size poster with a size of 70×100, consisting of at least 4 and maximum 10 pieces, and mostly meeting the target audience in the open air.
What is a Flyer? : Printed material, usually 1/2 or 1/4 A4 size, that is printed and distributed in large numbers for the purpose of announcing and promoting a product or service.
What is Packaging? : Paper, cardboard, etc., to protect a product from external influences, to promote it, to create an image about the product and to inform the user. product complement made from materials.
What is a prospectus? : Printed material containing information on the use of a drug and presented in the cardboard packaging of the drug. Or a word used in the sense of a prescription for a job.
Recto: The right-hand page of an open book, periodical or equivalent. Page 1 is permanently on the Recto and the rectos carry the continuous odd page count.
Verso: The left-hand page of a book.
Dia positive: Transparent, slide… It is a type of photograph in which the image is clearly visible on the film, and it is the original preferred in terms of image quality in printing.
Opaque: opaque and non-transparent, reflecting light. In photography, photos printed on card are called Opaque.
What is Gutter? : Inside margin – margin between the printed area and the edge of the page to be bound.
Dull page: An immobile page that appears flat in page layout. For example ; novel, story pages…
Nameplate: The region where the title of the publication is placed, supported by graphical features (the nameplate usually contains a background, horizontal lines, a subtitle and a description line. Not to be confused with the admin list (imprint).)
Imprint: A section containing the name, address, owner, manager, telephone, e-mail, etc. of a publication.
Pictogram : It is the stylized silhouette of objects. They are easily perceived and quickly learned. Letter, phone sign, no smoking etc signs.
Literal Meaning: A word is the direct meaning of a sign or image. For example, a yellow filled circle is a yellow colored circle.
Connotation : It is the second stage of meaning. Connotation gains value, becomes effective or recommended only where denotation is present. For example, the appearance of a yellow filled circle can be perceived as a sun.
Visual Material: Any material to be printed is called visual material. Examples include photographs, slides, pictures and text.
Symmetry: 1- General structure formed by well-proportioned and balanced parts in the design 2- Two-way similarity in form separated by an imaginary line or plane. Example human body, magazine and book pages…
Asymmetry: In the design, the structure consisting of parts based on disproportionation against the symmetry. Modernist movements have used asymmetry as a concept that provides a dynamic balance or order between dissimilar or non-equivalent visual elements. Asymmetrical balance is considered as a concept that provides a dynamic balance or order between dissimilar or non-equivalent visual elements. In asymmetry, large text crushes small text, large visual element crushes small visual element, but still integrity prevails on the page.
Bleeding: A portion of the printed area in the design, such as the photo, protrudes off the page.
Erase: Placing the visual material on the entire page in a print design so that there are no gaps at the edges of the page.
What is a silhouette? : Removing the background to abstract a key element from an image or photograph that is abstracted from the background.
Visual Hierarchy: Means the measurement of visual elements according to the message to be emphasized in the design. While photography stands out in some designs, typographic elements in some, color in some, and even the white space on the design surface in some of them.
What is a jersey? : Sheets of paper are usually divided into units of 4, 8, 16, or 32 pages . These units are called forms . Planning of multi-page printed materials such as books and magazines is done on the form.
What is Advertising? : All of the activities aimed at promoting a product or service to the press and media in exchange for money and communicating it to the public.
Advertising Agency: A community of experts who have the knowledge and ability to carry out promotional activities for a product or service.
Agency: Incorporating staff such as agency manager, client representative, art director, market researcher, copywriter, media officer, traffic officer, production manager, designer, illustrator, photographer, typesetting operator, industrial designer, personnel officer; It is a business that carries out advertising, marketing and promotional activities to promote, announce, sell a product or service.
Vignette: Ornaments, figures, flowers, etc., which are used in typesetting and page arrangement works, on the floor, in the spaces, in the corners, and which are produced by using them in systematic pieces.
What is PDF File Format? : PDF ( Portable Document Format ) comes from the initials of the words “Portable Document Format” . PDF files are a digital file format produced to create portable and printable documents between different computer operating systems. It is a suitable file format for printing in the printing house, when the jobs to be printed are saved and the necessary adjustments are made in the PDF file during recording.
What is JPEG File Format? : JPEG is a standardized digital image coding format by the Joint Photographic Experts Group. This format was standardized with the name of ISO 10918-1 in 1994. Thanks to JPEG file compression, images and photos that take up a lot of space in the data transport area can be compressed by 80% to 90% in size and take up less space. In this file compression, a lot of quality in pictures or photos losses may occur. It may not be a very suitable format for the works you will print in the printing house.
What is TIFF File Format? : Tagged Image File Format (TIFF for short) is a format used for files such as graphics and photos. It was produced by a company called Aldus and its first version was announced in 1986. After the merger of Aldus Corp and Adobe Systems in 1994, TIFF 6.0 was developed and many new features were added. Like JPEG and PNG, TIFF is used for images with high color depth. Image manipulation programs such as Photoshop, GIMP support TIFF format. Because the TIFF format supports multiple pages, multi-page documents can be saved as a single TIFF file rather than as individual files. For example, a TIFF file is in both JPEG format (lossy) and PackBits format (lossless). may contain compressed images. TIFF files can be used as good image archives thanks to their lossless image storage features. Because unlike standard JPEG files, a losslessly compressed (or not at all) compressed TIFF file can be edited and resaved without loss of image quality. This feature does not apply to JPEG format images contained in a TIFF file. TIFF is preferred for images with high color depth, as well as JPEG and PNG formats. TIFF is in dwindling use compared to other file formats because it requires much more disk space and has weaknesses such as “buffer overflow”. But it can preferably be used for printing.
What is PNG File Format? : PNG ( Portable Network Graphics ) is the abbreviation of the words meaning “Portable Network Graphics”, it is a storage format used to store images by losslessly compressing pictures and photos . Since PNG files contain more color depth information (shading information) of the original data and color toning details such as alpha, beta, gamma, etc. of these tones, compared to JPEG format, it gives a better image result than JPEG format. Briefly, the order of file recording quality in pictures and photographs is as follows; Best to lowest: RAW (raw images taken) > TIFF > PNG > JPEG and GIF.
What is EPS File Format? : EPS : EPS , originally called Encapsuled Post s script , is a file format standard developed by Adobe Systems for storing graphic and image files. The EPS format is supported by almost all drawing and page editing programs. Feature ; It is a flexible, re-editable file format. It should be noted that the color mode is CMYK when the job to be printed is saved as EPS.
What is CDR File Format? : CDR : File saving format of Corel Draw graphics software. CDR format is a completely flexible, vectorial (non-image, linear and re-editable) file saving format. When you save your graphic work in CDR file format, you save it in a format suitable for printing. Be sure to save in CMYK color mode while recording.
What is PSD File Format? : PSD : File saving format of Adobe Photoshop graphics software. PSD files contain detailed information such as effects, color depth information, resolution consisting of many layers belonging to the graphic work, and are ready for printing and are in a re-editable format. PSD files support large files up to 2GB. The PSB file format can be used for files larger than 2GB.
What is AI File Format? : AI is the file format of Adobe Illustrator graphics software. AI files are vector files just like CDR files, and all elements of the graphic work can be rearranged and have a flexible structure. In this file format, there is no loss of details and they are suitable for printing.
Abdek: It is a paint with a covering feature. It is used to close unwanted places in the film.
Enlarger: They have the opportunity to enlarge more than the cameras. It is mainly used for printing photos from negatives taken by amateur cameras. In print shops, the enlarger is used to shoot clear negatives or slide positives.
What is Acetate? : Emulsion carrier film base…
Data Transfer in Computers: It is the method of transferring the data in the computer to other computers with the help of intermediate elements (zip, floppy disk, SCSI, etc.).
CAPTURE MENU: Capture video: It is used to transfer the image to the hard disk of the computer or to the desired media after all the settings are made through the menus above.
Blu-sensitive films: These are films that are sensitive to the blue color of light. It is sensitive to blue and its tones. It is used for intermediate copies and black-and-white jobs. Since they have a natural emulsion, the symbol is shown with “N”. The safety light in the dark room is orange.
Capstan System: The system in which the exposure head is fixed in the scanners.
Copix: It is a system that allows re-scanning a color-separated film and throwing it into the CPT (Computer the Plate = Computer to plate system) environment.
Cromalin and Gevaproof: They are color proofing systems.
Densitometer: These are the devices that give us the degree of darkness in original, film and printing materials with numerical values. It is of two types; These are Transmision densitometers (measurements of light-transmissive materials) and Reflexion densitometers (measurements of opaque materials that do not transmit light).
Electronic Color Sorting Machine (Scanner-scanner): It is a completely electronic device called scanner, which is used especially for color separation in reproduction workshops. Scanners are mainly used for digitizing photos, drawings and transparencies. There are two types of image scanning methods. It consists of continuous tone images containing many types of gray with black and white, and linear images consisting of black and white only. Scanners can work with both MAC and PC machines as hardware.
Drum (Roller Surface-Drum) Scanners: In these scanners, the original moving reader eye is fixed. It is fixed to the original cylinder and the cylinder starts to rotate between 600–1600 revolutions. With this type of originals, slide, opaque and transparent originals that are not too thick are scanned in good quality. Drum scanners use a photomultiplier tube, often called a PMT, instead of a CCD to detect light. While the scanned image in PMT technology rotates around a drum, a stationary source transmits the light using photomultiplier tubes. The rotating drum’s advanced photodetectors and advanced optics make the drum scanner much more sensitive to bright and dark areas than most CCD scanners.
The original slide that comes to the service office is attached to the small cylinder, if it is opaque, to the large cylinder, and the size of the original and the desired size are introduced to the machine. Considering the color and tonal condition of the original, white from the lightest part and black from the darkest part is reported to the machine. The machine thus automatically adjusts the midtones and colors itself. If the operator is not satisfied, he intervenes in the colors within his own color knowledge and ensures that the original is filtered in the best way.
Flatbed Scanners: Horizontal scanners with the original immobile, the reader eye moving, and a flat surface where the original is placed. These scanners can scan originals up to a certain thickness in high resolution. Features for scanning transparent originals are also available.
A flatbed scanner is similar to a copier in many ways. The drawing or photo is placed under the cover of the scanner and the digital production process begins. Flatbed scanners use CCD technology. CCD is an abbreviation for charged coupled device, a device located in the scanner’s head that sends thousands of beams to the scanned object. Photoelectric cells on the head detect the red, green, and blue (RGB) components of light that are reflected back to the CCD. This reflected information is detected depending on the brightness and darkness of the image and digitized in a way that can be recorded on the computer. Fladbed scanners are desktop scanners whose resolution level is lower than drum and transparent scanners, which we use in the process of transferring and correcting any opaque (black-white or color) original to the computer environment.
Safety Light: It is a red, dark green and orange working light that does not affect the films and cards used in the dark room.
Emulsified Face: The light-sensitized surface of the film or printing plate.
Filter: These are special glasses of green, red and blue colors used in color separation with cameras.
Flash: A kind of lamp used in the shooting of the film, in the contact case and in photography, which gives a very strong light and goes out.
FM (Diamond Screen) Tram: In this type of screen, the point values in the film are different from the classical screens. Its system consists of sprayed dots. It works like an ink jet system. It is not used in Turkey due to the lack of technological infrastructure. It is a very high quality tram type.
Gradation: It is the maximum blackening degree that the film can reach in terms of hardness and softness.
Gamma: It is a unit of gradation measurement.
Gray Contact Screen: It can screen only black and white, as well as positive screening from color originals or halftone negatives.
Harmoni Screen: Standard screening, which is known to include elements such as standard screen angle, screen value.
Calculation Disk: The tool used to practically calculate size and percentage ratios…
ICC (International Color Control): Compliance with world color standards.
Reproduction Cameras: Devices that take films or pictures from originals that have a width but no depth. Pictures taken on cameras, reproduction cameras are used as the original permission. The most notable difference is that the repro cameras are larger. Another difference to Repro cameras is that they take pictures from originals that do not have double-dimensional depth. A portrait or a photograph of an object cannot be taken because depth clarity cannot be achieved with Repro cameras.
Contrast: The difference in tone between the lightest and darkest points of an image…
LCH System: It is a type of program that allows editing on scanned images while scanning.
Line Film: Hard film used in dash and contact studies.
Litho Film: Lith film without gray tones is known as graphic film and very hard screening film.
Lup: A magnifying glass for viewing film and adjusting print.
Magenta Contact Screen: Can only screen positive from black-and-white originals or halftone negatives.
Moare: Patterning formed by 2 screens printed at the same angle. It is undesirable in printing.
Negative Film: Film that is the reverse of the original, i.e. the black spots on the original are transparent on the negative. The white parts in the original are black in the film, opaque.
Opaque Originals: They are originals that do not transmit light. For example, previously printed originals, photographs, pictures drawn on paper.
Orthochromatic Films: It is a dash film without gray tones. Its symbol is “O”. It is insensitive to red light. The dark room light is red. It is used in dash and tramway works.
Panchromatic films: They are sensitive to every color of light. They are halftone films with gray tones. Its symbol is “P”. The darkroom light is dark green. But it is better not to use it at all.
Postscript: It is a type of software developed by Adobe Company.
Positive film: It is the film that gives light places in the original and dark places in the original.
Exposure: Illumination for a certain period of time to transfer images onto films, cards or plates.
Film Exposures: Systems that make exposure from the computer environment to the film output machine. Today, the expected quality, efficiency and appropriate size from a film poser. There are varieties of film setters that work with flatbed, inner drum and outer drum systems. The most used one in the market is the inner drum system. In this system, the highest positioning and repetition precision is ensured with the principle of exposure on the fixed photo graphic material inside the drum, so that sharp and always the same density screen points are obtained. The exposure principle in question is as simple as it is extremely effective. Only a rotating mirror is used to deflect the beam sent by the laser. This mirror directs the laser beam vertically to the photomaterial mounted on the drum at the same distance and at the same angle everywhere.
What is Reproduction?: It is the process of preparing films that are compatible with mold making from originals that are intended to be reproduced by printing.
Retouch: Required movie fixes. The process of covering the unwanted parts of the film with abdek.
Transparent Scanners: Transparents have a wider dynamic range; therefore the image obtained from the scan will be better than an opaque object and allow more magnification. In most transparency scanners the CCD is fixed and the light photodetectors are guided through a combination of mirrors and lenses. The optical system of clear scanners is generally better than flatbed scanners.
Scanner Film: A type of high-precision film used in electronic color separation machines.
Tire (Lith): It consists of two tones such as black and white, that is, the absence of tones.
Tram: It is the number of dots on a 1 cm line. It divides the darkness differences in the original into larger and smaller dot backgrounds according to the ratio of the darknesses. It is a reproduction tool made of glass or film that is used to convert ground or intermediate tones into points. Its other name is contact tram. In terms of color, there are two types as Gray Contact Tram and Magenta Contact Tram.
Number of Tram Lines: It is the number of tram points on the 1cm line.
Transparent Originals: These are the originals that transmit light. For example, slide positives, negative photographic films, pictures drawn on transparent material…
Halftone Original: Originals with a wide variety of colors and shades of gray, from black and a dark color to white, are called halftone originals.
What is Skirt Scissors Revolta? : It is the second type of translation. It is the type of printing made by bringing the scissor side to the skirt and the skirt side to the scissors after the 1st side of the paper is printed. The pose is the same in front and back printing. Skirt-scissors revolta is made by twisting and turning it forward.
Uniform Guide: It is mounted on the first page of each layer (form) to facilitate the binding work in the bookbinding house.
Number guide for the jersey: It is mounted on the back of the jersey in the form of a ladder. During binding, it is checked whether all the forms of the book are in place or in pairs.
Paper scissors: It is the offset printing machine’s paper holding margin. The oscillating scissors deliver the paper coming from the table to the scissors on the printing cylinder. Printing is done on the paper that is pressed between the printing cylinder and the rubber cylinder. This share is not put under pressure. This share must be left in deletion works.
Die Scissor Share: It is the margin reserved for connecting the die plate to the die boiler. It is the part that does not print.
Cross (Guide): These are the guide marks that allow the colors to fall into place in the printing. It is placed on at least both sides of the assembly. Usually the middle of the paper is placed. Mold drawing, printing and breaking are done according to these crosses.
Millimeter paper: Paper with millimeter squares printed on it.
Assembly Template: It is the template prepared for each color, obtained by covering the areas that we do not want to be seen in the print with a covering red tape and covering red paper or covering black paper.
Montage: It is the job of sticking the films to be printed on a light-permeable floor foil (Astrolan) according to the trace. The process of collecting the picture and text films separately for each printing color and sticking them on a fully transparent foil that does not change their size according to a certain plan, is called montage.
Page distribution in montage: In the montage of a brochure, a catalogue, a magazine or a book, it is called the correct scattering of the page numbers after the pages are printed one by one and broken.
Negative montage: It is a type of montage made with negative films. Negative mounting is more difficult than positive mounting. Compared to the old technology in negative montage, the film consumption was less since it was necessary to take negative film first to obtain a positive film. Therefore, the economic aspect of these studies was discussed before deciding on positive or negative mounting. Today, some newspapers still use the old technology, so they have chosen the negative mounting system to reduce film consumption.
Blueprint: A rehearsal before printing to see the mistakes made in montage. Blueprint Paper: A kind of paper used in blueprint shooting …
Positive montage: These are montages made with positive films. Offset mounts are almost always positive, with the exception of newspaper mounting. It can also be made negative depending on the job. Since the films used here are viewed from their matte surfaces, the text and pictures must be upside down. Precise overlapping of colors is easier in positive montage than in negative montage. Accordingly, the control of the assembly is also easy. Up to three color positive assemblies can be made until one color negative is mounted.
Revolta: It is a form of printing obtained on two same forms by printing the back side of the printed paper with the same mold. There are two kinds of revolutions. These; On the side, there is a rotary revolta and a skirt-scissors revolta.
Side Flip Revolta: It is a very frequently used flip form. The front and back pages of the work we will print in small size are on one side of the paper. In other words, the front and back pages are together in the pattern. Since both sides of the paper will be printed, we get two identical forms by cutting one layer in the middle. After the 1st side of the paper is printed, it is turned on the side and the 2nd side is printed with the same pattern. The scissors are the same in the 1st and 2nd side prints, they have not changed.
Trace (Print division cardboard-Assembly plan) : Cardboard or paper on which the drawings required for the assembly of the films of the work to be printed are made. It is drawn on millimeter paper.
Shave Share (Cutting Line): It is the auxiliary mark used to indicate the intermediate cut and the cut places after the break after the trace is drawn.
What is a loop? : A type of magnifying glass used in montage to check whether colors and crosses overlap.
What is Mold? : They are metal layers on which the images of the films that have been assembled are transferred by means of light.
What is Tram? : These are the dots that are used to print pictures by means of a plate in both letterpress printing and offset and intaglio printing. The number of dots per cm2 varies according to the printing type and printing material.
Scissors: The paper, whose front and side dies are adjusted, is held tightly by the scissors and transmitted to the rotating printing vessel. While the printed paper goes to the stack, the scissors return and take the new paper to the printing boiler.
What is a Roller? : It is the cylindrical part that sends the paint or water homogeneously to the mold boiler in the printing machine.
Ink: It is the substance that gives color to the material consisting of a mixture of pigment, varnish and binders.
Numerator: An electronic device on the printing machine that counts the number of prints and indicates how many prints have been made.
Pigment: It constitutes the essence of the paint. It gives its original color. It is used in the manufacture of paint by combining with various varnishes and fillers.
What is Pose? : It is the part that can be moved back and forth during printing, which ensures that the paper is properly transmitted to the printing vessel in the machine.
What is sheet offset? : These are the machines that print on cut (layered) papers.
Transparent ink: Transparent colorless ink…
What is Trichromy Printing? : It is a type of printing with different screen angles, which is printed with three-color serial dyes (Cyan+Magenta+Yellow).
High printing: It is a letterpress printing system. Basan, that is, the parts that take paint, got this name because it is high.
Marker notch: The groove in the thick surface of the letter.
Plain print: It is a lithographic print called lithography.
Hyphen : It consists of two tones such as black and white, that is, the absence of intermediate tones.
Original: An example of a photograph prepared to be clichéd, a figure made with a picture line, and a map.
What is a Cliché? : They are metal molds prepared for printing letters and pictures in the printing house. Or letterpress printing pattern…
Hyphen cliché: A printing plate prepared without a dot (without screen) tonal difference of an original prepared in black and white.
Autotype cliché: A printing pattern of halftone pictures and photographs using a screen.
Anterlin : A metal blank line, generally two points wide, placed between the lines so that the lines do not get mixed up and distorted.
What is Gale? : The tray on which the arrayed molds are placed to be connected and transported.
Circle: A rectangular iron frame, which is prepared in pre-eminent dimensions according to the size of each printing machine, which ensures the regular connection of typesetting patterns and clichés prepared for letterpress printing.
Vizo: Screw lock device used in mold clamping.
What does Takatuka mean?: A wooden tool used by striking the mold to bring the type or the mold to a level.
Mizantren : It is the process made under the mold or on the boiler paper in order to print every part of the mold used in letterpress printing with the same quality. Or, some parts of a text or picture form to be printed print lightly and some parts strongly, and the work to be done to correct these defects is called mizantren.
Duplex: It is the name given to the printing that is printed in two colors by shifting half the screen with the same two clichés with different tram angles or with the same cliche.
Space: The metal parts that are shorter than the letters placed between the words that are formed by bringing the letters side by side are called spacers or spaces.
What is cold press? : Embossed unpainted printing on bindings and papers. (Embroidery)
What is Gofre? : Embossing process in printing paper.
Mixed pattern: If machine typesetting and cliché are used in hand typesetting, this pattern is called mixed pattern.
What is Perforation? : The process of punching the points or lines made by printing machines to break the paper or metal line.
What is Pilyage? : Conical; for binding, to make grooves on cardboard or cardboard to facilitate folding.
Polyamide film: It is generally used laminated (combined) with PE, since it does not adhere to heat.
Film: In the packaging branch, the film is a thin and elastic layer of a non-fibrous organic material.
Lamination: In general terms, the process of combining two or more materials into a single and durable material.
What is Relief? : Relief effect.
Density : Density value of the film. Or the color intensity on the paper…
What is Gravure Printing?: (German tif=deep, druck=printing) It is a system that prints from engraved copper patterns. A cylinder covered with pits of varying depths inside the ink chamber, which determines the printing motif, is at rest, a squeegee scraper scrapes excess ink from the parts that will not print, and a rubber-coated roller presses the paper onto the cylinder and performs the printing.
Hollow printing machine: The parts that print are hollow, the parts that do not are the machines that print from the molds where they are high. Printing is done directly from the plate onto the paper. The other common name of these machines is intaglio printing machines. It is derived from the German words “tief” (deep) and “druck” (pressure).
What is Screen Printing?: On a fine-textured fabric (silk) or metal mesh stretched into a frame; The holes that coincide with the shape to be printed are left open. The holes in the outer part are closed with special materials. Thus, it is placed on any surface created, ink is spread inside with a special rubber, and the paint leaking down through the open holes when collected allows the shape to come onto the surface.
What is Screen Printing? : It is the system that prints with the paint passed through the thin special silk weaving stretched like a sieve or the written surfaces.
Gaze (silk): It is the weaving that is stretched to the frame and carries the image on it.
Photo Template: It is the work done on the sieve by using photo-graphic emulsions sensitive to light.
What is Lacquer? : They are liquid substances that are used to cover the surfaces on the parts that are not covered with a film or emulsion on silk.
Stencil : Stencil, screen printing pattern.
Acrylic paint: All kinds of acrylic and plastic based paints that can be thinned with water and can be cleaned.
Relief (Embossing): It is the embossing of the print by sprinkling baking powder on the printed work, pouring the excess powder, and heating it on the electric stove.
Pad printing: When the paint on the cliché is peeled off with a Squeegee, it remains only on the outer parts. The pad, which consists of a mixture of silicone and oil, is left on the object to be printed by taking the remaining paint from this female part. The great feature of this bumper is that it accepts paint easily and transfers it perfectly.
Cliché : A mold that has a positive film image.
What is First Pulp Paper? : 1st pulp paper is white colored plain book paper with high cellulose and low wood. It is preferred in book printing, letterhead printing, notebooks, textbooks, test books and similar printing works. It is available in different grammages. It is one of the most preferred paper types.
What is Second Pulp Paper? : In 2nd pulp papers, the amount of wood and cellulose are almost equal. It is preferred in printing works such as book printing, since its price is more affordable than 1st pulp paper. Preferably, it is available in different weights.
What is third pulp Paper? : The amount of wood is high, the amount of cellulose is low. Its color is close to yellow. Some authors prefer this type of paper for book printing.
What is Coated Paper? : The surface of these papers, which are coated with fillers and polished to increase their quality, is called glossy paper on both sides. It is a type of paper that shows colors more vividly than other papers.
Coated papers; There are two types, matt coated and glossy coated paper. Coated papers are generally preferred for brochure printing, poster printing, banner and magazine printing. Coated papers are available in a wide variety of weights depending on the work to be printed.
What is Natural Coat? : Since the fillers are mixed into the paper pulp in natural coated, their whiteness is less compared to coated papers with superficial fillers.
Cardboard Paper: It can be defined as a hard, durable and thick paper material produced from pulp obtained by mechanical or chemical processes of vegetable cellulose or by re-fibering recycled cardboard.
How about Chrome Cardboard Papers? : One side is satinated and mostly used for exterior color works, medicine boxes and other small packaging works.
How about Krome Luxury Cardboard Papers? : One side is very well satinated and is preferred for luxury covers, invitation printing, business card printing and other advertising works.
Bristol Cardboards: They are very good cardboards and are preferred as book covers in novels, storybooks and other types of book printings.
File Cardboards: They are Bristol paper type and are generally preferred for file printing and color chart printing.
Gray Cardboard: It is produced in two types to be used in handicrafts and printing machines. It is long fiber. It is also used as a cover in box manufacturing, packaging manufacturing and similar works, binding. Gray Cardboard and cardboard products are produced from smooth surface and 100% recycled paper.
Straw Cardboard: They are produced only for handicrafts. It is short fibered and has a brittle structure. It breaks quickly. Its main ingredient is evaporated straw.
Holzpappe (consisting of wood pulp): The main material of these cardboards is short fiber wood. It is used in calendar making and various panel works.
Lined Cardboard: Its main material is pieces of evaporated wood. Since it is lined, it gives good results in luxury box works and packaging.
Pressed Cardboard: It is made of a material called Hadern. It is sanded and polished with a hard stone. Because it is very hard, the folder is used in cardboard work.
Hard Cardboard: It can be bent, but not broken. It is used in the manufacture of bags, index and color charts.
Back Cardboard: It is a flexible structure and is used in the production of book backs.
What is Pelur Paper? : It is a very light, transparent (light permeable) and very thin paper. Flat and onion pelur types are available. Since it is not produced much nowadays, it is not preferred much.
Autocopy or Autocopy Papers: Autocopy papers, also known as micro-capsule rolled paper, are known as self-copying papers. Micro-capsules filled with ink, which we cannot see with the naked eye, are plastered on one side of the paper. When the other side of the paper is pressed with a hard object (such as a pen), the microcapsule explodes and the same image is transferred to the paper surface below. It is used in works such as invoices, waybills, and multi-copy forms. CB, CFB, CF types are available.
Blueprint Papers: It is the paper whose surface is covered with a light sensitive material, which is used to reproduce pictures and projects from paper or tracing originals. Blueprint models are used for the approval of the customer before the printing of the montages and they are used in direct assembly.
What Does the Weight of Paper Mean? : 1m2 / gr, that is, it refers to the weight of the paper in grams.
What Does Paper Pulp Mean? : The final state of the paper before it is manufactured.
What Does Paper Water or Paper Water Way Mean? : Indicates the turning direction of the paper on the roller.
What is Roll Paper? : Very long continuous paper wound in a reel.
Calender: Paper ironing and polishing unit or machine in paper factories.
Stifnis: Defined as the resistance of the cardboard against bending, stifnis is the most important feature of the cardboard to be used in box production.
Kaliko Skin Cloth: Kalikos are skin cloths made of cotton thread. It is used to make durable skin. It was first made in 1825. It is sensitive to water. Wetness leaves stains. It has also been made that is not affected by water. Both sides are knitted. But the weave is not visible from the outside.
Alkor: Its carriers are paper, not thread. It is made by coating PVC on packaging papers.
What is an accent? : These are the signs on some letters that serve as a guide in the pronunciation of some words that have passed into our language, especially from foreign languages.
What is a subtitle? : These are the headings under the main heading, which are used to divide large texts into swallowable pieces, advertise the article they present, encourage people to read, and read.
What is a sub-title? : These are the headings that are arranged with a smaller font size than the text type used between the texts to draw attention to certain parts of a news or text, and are generally bolder (bold) .
What is the main title? : A design or logo used by a newspaper or publication as a corporate identification. For example, the logo of a company…
Printed material: Materials that will be seen on the page as a result of the printing process, such as letters, signs, lines, ornaments in hot typesetting.
Non-printing materials: They are materials that are in the printing mold and do not come into contact with the ink, such as spacers (intermediate gaps), quadrants, antherlines , garnishes, and cliché bases in hot typesetting. Spaces, between words; quadrants, at completion of unfinished (widow) lines or in word/line average; garnishes, in creating large gaps on the page; Cliché pads are used to bring clichés to the height of the text.
Title : The text placed at the beginning of the text to indicate the name of the subject in capital letters…
Block text from the beginning: The type of string whose lines start from the right and the last part ends freely… It can also be called a block from the left.
Reference Marks: Marks used to direct the reader from the text to footnotes or other references.
Block paragraph : A string made without a carriage return, without inserting the line at the beginning of the paragraph.
Justification: Placing the text vertically, right and left. It can be full block and half block. In full blocking, the letter spaces in the widowed lines can be opened more than necessary, and they can display an undesirable appearance.
What is Bold Text? : A blacker typeface or style that has a thicker body than a regular typeface.
What is bold-italic text? : A typeface used by many typesetters (as here), although difficult to read with italic characters and bold lines This style should be preferred mostly in sub-headings.
Double: A fine-tipped tool similar to tweezers used for ease of arranging metal letters in letterpress printing.
What is decorative lettering? : Decorative fonts are designed for special images. It is generally the preferred font for titles and artwork, not texts.
Typesetting operator: The person who does the typesetting work on the typesetting machines… Today, apart from publishing houses, the typesetting operator profession leaves its place to assistant graphic artists who can design both typesetting.
What is Typesetting? : The process of rewriting a written text, which is intended to be reproduced by printing, in printing letters by observing certain standards.
Typesetter: The crew of the person who takes the lead letters one by one from the letter cases and arranges them on the caliper by hand; In lead typesetting machines such as linotype, entertype, monotype, the person who types with the help of the keyboard is called a typesetting operator. Today, computer typesetting personnel in the desktop publishing system are also called computer typesetting operators.
Widow: An incomplete line at the end of a paragraph.
Proofreader: A person who knows the general rules of proofreading, has a good command of the language in which the text is written, and is responsible for correcting typographical and typographical errors in a text arranged within this framework.
Italic Text: It is the type of normal text that is slightly bent by the computer. It reads better than the italic one.
Typesetting by hand : The typesetting process made by hand-picking and putting together the lead letters, which were previously cast and taken their place in the type boxes, by the crews one by one.
Entertype: A mechanical typesetting machine that strings solid (single) lines in a lead-based typesetting system.
Font: A set of letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and other writing symbols with a specific name and fixed appearance.
Galley: A metal plate with a square on two of its edges and on which typographic typesetting lines are placed manually or mechanically.
Letter Case: It is a multi-drawer safe with a specific order, containing metal letters (types).
Letter: It is the most basic element of typographic arrangement and indicates each symbol of the alphabet.
Calligraphy : The art of handwriting. Calligrapher: A person who practices handwriting as an art.
Initial Letter: The capital letter at the beginning of the paragraph and mostly decorated.
What is italic? : It is a printing letter derived from the humanistic lowercase letter and adopted in printing around 1500 with the initiative of Aldo Manizio, slightly inclined towards the upper right corner according to the reader. It has been redesigned and bent to resemble handwriting. It is less legible due to its thinness and angle.
Calligraphy: Beautiful, stylish handwriting.
Character: Numerals, letters, punctuation marks, or any other symbol used in concert to represent data and information for processing or transmitting purposes.
Cliché: 1. A metal plate on which a composition or picture has been copied as an embossing, for use in letterpress printing. 2. In hollow printing, photo negative and positive.
Command or Function Character: A character that is used to start, change, or stop the execution of operations such as saving, processing, transmitting, or interpreting data, and must be separated from a data display character.
Majuskul: Writing in capital letters or capital letters , also known as capital (capital ) or uppercase (uppercase) .
Mechanical typesetting: The mechanical (with methods such as Linotype, monotype) of the printing letters to be printed .
Miniscule: Writing written in lowercase or lowercase letters.
Monotype: A mechanical typesetting machine that lines up individual letters with adjusted lengths.
Automatic Line Spacing: Word processing programs automatically adjust line spacing, regardless of font, font size and style.
Pi Fonts: The name given to the symbols that are not in the typewriter and the symbols that we obtain with the Alt, Option on the keyboard, or to the specially produced symbol fonts.
Pica: Pica designer unit of measurement. 12 points = 1 pica, 6 picas = 1 inch, 1 inch = 2.54 cm.
Proofing machine: A printing machine that allows photoengravers to make test proofs or a letterpress worker to make first proofs or column proofs.
Point: It is the basic unit of measurement in which letter sizes are defined. Book letters are between 10 -12 points.
Regular (Standard): One of the members of the font family. The most suitable font for legibility, mostly used in the main text string.
Sans serif fonts: These are fonts that usually consist of evenly weighted lines, have the best clarity and do not have the ending accents we call quotation marks. Arial, Helvetica, Univers are examples of sans serif fonts.
Top of page depth: Extra space at the top of the page added to the top margin. This space is usually on the first page of a new chapter to make the chapter title clear. The depth of the page should remain the same throughout the entire book.
Digital (digital) typesetting: Today, it can be performed on all personal computers; The typesetting system, which is developed day by day with the support of many software and font manufacturers…
Script writing: It is the name given to fonts that resemble handwriting. They create an informal friendly atmosphere. While some letters are combined in the string, some do not touch each other. They are used in intimate correspondence that requires little writing, such as invitations.
Serif fonts: Serif fonts , also known as quotation marks, have small horizontal lines at the end points of each letter. These lines keep the shape of each letter separate and facilitate the transition between letters. Its vertical lines are thicker than its horizontal lines. They can be thin or thick, of equal thickness, tapering or round. Fonts with the best legibility.
Hot typesetting: Linotype, which supports letterpress printing system, is a typesetting system performed by arranging lead letters in entertype typesetting machines and pouring them in casting machines. We can also call it Gutenberg technology. It is based on the principle of casting lead letters either one by one or in lines. This typesetting system supports letterpress printing system from high printing systems.
Cold type: It is generally used for other letter types obtained by lead casting. It should not be confused with photo typesetting or numeric (digital) typesetting. Before 1990, IMB etc. There were typewriters working with molds made of ball-shaped metal character sets produced by companies. Each ball contained a different character. It was possible to string in different characters by changing the balls. At that time when hot type was common, this system was called cold typesetting.
End-block : A type of string where lines are right-justified.
Correction : Correction of typographical errors. A common language has been created for proofreading, and certain transactions are indicated by certain symbols.
Typography: 1. Typesetting and printing method on relief patterns (individual characters, engravings, clichés). 2. The work of arranging the written elements (typeface, font size, etc.) with an artistic point of view in graphic design. Today, with the development of computerized typography, it has become easier to create new typographic types with enriched writing families.
Typometer: A graduated ruler used by compositors. It is a straight ruler with two separate divisions on it. One of them has the decimal parts of the meter system (centimeters, millimeters) , and the other has the typography system, which is divided into twelve equal parts and whose unit is letterpress.
Dash : Synonym of 1. Line 2. Photo with no soft tones and only two extreme intensities. 3. A hyphen plate or piece of printing plate derived from a film with only plain whites and blacks (as opposed to Screening)
Truetype Font : Font scheme offered by Apple and Microsoft. Trutype fonts often result in much faster output on laser printers.
X-height: The concept of X-height, named after the lowercase x in the Latin Alphabet , means the height of small vowels such as a , e , o , u , ı and is an important design feature. A small x-height typeface in the same font takes up less space than a large x-height typeface. (Comparing 12 point Times to 12 point Arial, Arial takes up more space.)
ABCÇDEFGĞHIİJKLMNOÖPRSŞTUÜVYZ (Arial-Regular 12 point)
ABCÇDEFGĞHIİJKLMNOÖPRSŞTUÜVYZ (Times-Regular 12 points)
Font Family: It is called a group consisting of variations of a typographic character with different wall thicknesses, such as narrowed, expanded, inclined, striped. Like Helvetica , Arial , Garamond , Times font families…
Font thickness: Condensed fonts help to increase the effect of titles without wasting much space. Concentrated ; It doesn’t mean it’s compressed or corrupted. They are designed for greater effect. The x-small heights are increased to increase the space inside each character. It provides clarity to the writing. Spacing between letters, lines and paragraphs affects both legibility and clarity. Great differences can be created by adjusting letter spacing in both text and headings. Two concepts should not be forgotten when calculating letter, line and paragraph spacing. Monitoring and adjustment (Tracing means that the letter spacing in the whole document is the same. Adjustment is; It is accepted that the left-blocked text gives a less formal appearance than the block.)
Typeface Set (Font): It is the whole alphabet of a letter form. In other words, it is the appropriate collection of special letters with all their parts, including numbers and punctuation marks, in the same sequence and in the same size.
Font Style: Changes used to emphasize different places in a font. Normal, bold , italic , bold-italic , underline, shaded etc. are texts.
Font Adjustment: Effect that allows you to edit existing inscription threads and create new ones. In software with this effect, you can add fine finish lines to letters, print, stretch letters and add spaces on both sides. If you want to fundamentally change the font, you can play with the x-height and find different symbols that can be used as logos…
Font: Character sets with basically the same characteristics… Now that the sizes can be adjusted with word processing programs, the term font is used for character sets with the same line ratios. Most fonts offer more alternatives than regular and bold. For example, most of the sans serif fonts contain light and heavy text options. Although these are not suitable for use in general text; they color the titles and add movement. Options such as Light, Regular, Bold, Black, Ultra Black are available.
What is a computer? : Technological machines that process data and make it readable and viewable.
Computer-to-Print Systems: In this system, a job prepared on the computer is directly put into the mold and is a system that performs the printing afterwards. Ease of it is to remove the problem of assembly and mold households.
CCD : (Charged Coupler Device) CCD is an electronic device used to measure light in devices such as scanners and digital cameras.
Digital Camera (input unit): A type of camera that can directly digitize images within itself and transfer these images to a computer. There is no photographic film and film processing in this system. Images are written directly to the camera’s hard disk or memory card. Images here can be rearranged on personal computers and prepared for printing.
External recording unit (SCSI, CD-w – output and input unit): It is a tool that can keep information such as hard disk in its memory, but is not fixed, can be moved and can be connected to another computer and helps to transfer information. While SCSI (skazi) is in the form of a portable hard disk, CD-Writer allows the information to be written to compact disk (CD), copied and transferred to other computer environments.
Keyboard (input unit): A piece of hardware in a computer that allows you to type and make changes to images and data, like a typewriter.
Modem (output and input unit): It enables the computer to send data to or receive data from other personal computers by connecting to communication networks such as the Internet; A device that converts computer digital signals into telephone signals and telephone signals into digital signals.
Monitor (output unit): A tool for displaying data on the computer.
Mouse (mouse – input unit): Selecting, copying, cutting, drawing, etc. in computer software. The unit of the computer that performs operations such as Pen Mouse; A device that acts like a scanner, helps drawing by passing over a previously drawn object, or creates an image by hand-free drawing.
Printer (printer – output unit): A digital device that enables the transfer of written and visual materials produced in the computer environment onto paper. It is one of the most basic members of desktop publishing equipment… It has color and black and white, dot-based, ink-jet and laser-operated varieties.
Scanner (input unit- scanner): The part that digitizes images such as text, transparent or opaque photographs, pictures, illustrations with 0 and 1 codes and transfers them to the computer environment. There are varieties such as hand scanners, desktop scanners, flatbed scanners and drum scanners. Drum scanners and flatbed scanners are devices that make more detailed and quality scanning in reproduction shops. Others are used in amateur scanning operations.
Desktop Publishing: A method of preparing publications such as books, magazines, newspapers, brochures on personal computers using special software.
a) (Bitmapped): They are ideal for soft and pictorial effects. Images created in this program are made up of pixel dots.
b) Object-oriented: In these software, also known as vector-based programs, smooth and sharp-edged images required for geometric drawing, icon, logo and other typographic applications are produced. These programs store all images as lines or vectors rather than points.
c) Numerical processing: Software with which we can perform numerical calculations and create tables.
d) Word processing: These are software that are generally used in text-heavy page editing studies such as theses, reports, and pictureless books.
e) Page Layout: These are the programs used in the design of the pages of materials such as magazines and newspapers.
f) System Software: Software that ensures the efficient operation of the software and hardware to be used in the realization of desktop publishing-related transactions.
g) Hardware Software: These include software designed to enable the hardware of the computer to work in the system, to be introduced to the system and to use the features of the hardware within itself. For example, it is not enough to connect your printer to your computer, you also need to install a program containing printer information on your system.
Anti-aliasing : Smoothing effect given by mixing pixels
Print proofing: A method of predicting how a job will look when printed. The proof is a sample taken from the working print with the actual paper, ink sets and images that will be used in the final reproduction. Digital proofing systems are developed in M.Ü.Y. can be considered as a component of equipment.
Memory colors: Colors easily found in nature; skin tones, such as blue (sky) and green (plants). These colors are also called reference colors.
Bezier curves: A curve defined mathematically using four control points.
Composite : A composite image shows all the color elements in it at the same time. While working in the graphic design program, you can show the channels individually, or you can show them all at once.
CEPS : (Color Electronic Publishing System) Usually used to describe specialized image correction or retouching systems offered by Scitex, Linotype/Hell, Crosfield and others.
Cromalin™: A method for creating a color proof. This method uses slight color differences with a CMYK layer that is subsequently lacquered to create a high-quality color proof.
Clip Art: Illustrations printed on paper for designers to cut out and paste into their designs. In desktop publishing, clip art is electronic images that can be copied from one floppy disk and pasted into another.
What is Resolution? : The width and height of an image, measured in pixels. Therefore, when we say high-resolution image, we mean an image whose resolution is at least twice that of the lined screen to be reproduced. For example, a 300-dpi image printed on a 150-line screen is high-resolution. The criteria used to determine the resolution are dpi, lpi and pixels.
DCS : (Desktop Color Separation) Desktop color separation
Descreening: A process in which the operator destroys existing halftone dots. Descreening occurs when you scan an object from printed material.
Dynamic Range: The difference between the lowest and highest intensities found in a given image. The term is also used to describe the sensitivity of a scanner or digital camera.
What is Dpi? : The number of scans per inch. As the number of scans per inch increases, the image is scanned in more detail and its quality increases. (1 inch=2.54cm).
Filter : A small application inside a larger application that can be used to manipulate images. In Photoshop, you can use many different filters to sharpen, distort, or otherwise alter the appearance of an image.
Fractal: The name given to the patterns that mathematicians create on computers based on mathematical formulas.
Frequency: The number of dots per inch in a semitone. The higher the frequency, the better (smaller) the semitone dot.
GATF : The Graphic Arts Technical Foundation in Pittsburgh. GATF is a non-profit organization that provides testing facilities and standards for the graphics industry.
GCR : (Gray Component Replacement) A process in which shades of gray created by turquoise, purple, and yellow are replaced with the same amount of black.
General Color Correction: A color adjustment that affects the entire image rather than a selected region.
Shadows: Dark areas of an image that carry detail.
Grayscale: The amounts of turquoise, purple and yellow that make up the gray color.
Dual Tone (Duotone): An image created by superimposing two half-tones of different ink colors, each at a certain screen angle.
Jaggies: Pointed edges often found in high-contrast works, writing, or illustrations.
Lpi : (Lines Per Inch) The name given to the number of lines per inch in desktop publishing. Photos to be printed from a laser printer can reach up to 75 lpi. If it is really high quality, the Lpi value can go up to 500.
Bullet symbol : Symbol used instead of asterisk in lists.
Pixel (Dot): A single picture element… A single dot, the smallest dot that a computer monitor can display on a screen or in a continuous tone image.
Densitometer: An instrument designed to measure the density of ink on a page or the density values of a particular region of an image.
High-key image: An image that has been heavily processed, faded, or an image that has lost details during the scanning process.
HSL: (Hue, Saturation and lightness – Color, saturation and luminance) Saturation is the degree and hue of the color; light indicates how white it is in that color.
Importing (Importing): A M.Ü.Y. Reading an image produced in software in a different application. For example, saving an image produced in the (A) program in a suitable format and having it read in the (B) program.
Layer: A method that allows objects to be placed and corrected on separate planes without affecting the whole image.
Cut: Extracting a selected part of an image or text and copying it to the clipboard.
Contrast: The relationship between the brightest and darkest areas of an image.
Luminance: A measure of the brightness or luminosity of a hue, regardless of its color or saturation.
Bullets: Design symbols used to present items on lists.
Mask: Another object created to protect or displace part of an object. You can also think of the mask as a template.
Dot gain: The enlargement of a halftone dot due to ink cooling of the paper on which the image is printed. Newspaper printing has a large dot gain multiplier, whereas glitter paper has a small dot gain multiplier.
Point : A single halftone element.
Opaque: A tone that captures all the light (100 percent black). Non-transparent, impermeable to light…
Preview: Software function that shows how a document will come out of the printer or how it will look on the set paper type.
Gloss: As a printing term, gloss describes the reflective property of the paper. In graphic design programs, it is a measure of the amount of light in each pixel.
Clipboard: The area of memory used for sequential temporary storage. Each time information is copied to the clipboard, the previous copy is deleted.
Pixelation : A special effect by reducing the resolution of the image to make individual pixels visible.
Color Separation: The process of converting an image into four-process ink colors for reproduction in printing.
Retouching: Modifying a digital image with tools designed to adjust pixel values.
Transparency: An image on a material that allows light to pass through its surface; the ability to display images below an image…
Screening angle: The angle at which halftone dots are placed on a page. In traditional color separations, four screens (CMYK) are placed 30 degrees apart. Change hiding angles can be done with software.
Screening: The process in which a continuous-tone image is converted into halftone dots for reproduction on conventional printing presses.
Continuous tone : Digital image before separation and conversion of halftone dots.
Substrate: The material on which an image is printed or designed, the substrate.
Swop: A set of standards set by the GATF that defines how colors will output on standard opaque paper. SWOP has standards for newsprint, gloss and uncoated papers. SWOP inks conform to established standards for reproductions on that substrate.
Template : A read-only file containing all the attributes of a ready-to-finish document. Templates often include features such as columnar structure and page layout, as well as unchanging parts of publications such as nameplates and address zones. Templates, M.Ü.Y. they save time in their application.
Scanning: The process of converting opaque or transparent originals into digital files that can be used in designs. Scanning can be performed on desktop or drum scanners, depending on the purpose.
Tonal range: The number of tones between black and white in a given image.
Hue: A measure of brightness or luminosity…
Trapping : Adjustments to overlapping or adjacent images to compensate for minor shifts in the substrate during the printing process.
Type1 : Adobe’s font layout universally accepted by professional designers. Advanced service bureaus mostly prefer this font.
TrueType : A font scheme produced by Apple and Microsoft and universally accepted by designers. Advanced service bureaus mostly prefer this font.
UCR (undercolor removal): Removal of varying amounts of turquoise, purple, and yellow from regions with sufficient black values to achieve the desired gray tone.
Default Value: Initial settings for tools, packages, and other file preferences in Adobe Photoshop. Default values can be changed using the Prefences command.
Vector Image: An image in which objects are mathematically defined, not pixels.
Halftone: An image created by converting a continuous-tone image into a series of points of various sizes.
Density: The darkness of an object, as measured by its ability to reflect or cool light.
Rounding Mask: A filter that sharpens an image by creating ‘halos’ around the edges of objects. The human eye is not sensitive enough to notice small changes in color; this process amplifies these changes to make them more visible.
Types of Formats Used in Desktop Publishing: TIFF: (Tagged Image File Format) A file format created by Aldus Corporation to store bitmapped images.
PDF : File types organized according to Adobe Acrobat’s Portable Document Format (portable document format). Since all format properties of these files are saved in the file, cross-platform migration is not a problem.
PICT : A file format used by many programs. Many multimedia applications use the PICT format to display graphics on the screen.
JPEG : A compression method created by the Joint Picture Experts Group that reduces the original size of files.
EPS : (Encapsulated Postscript) A file format standard, also called EPSF, developed by the Adobe system for storing graphic and image files.
Color Concepts in Desktop Publishing
24-bit color: A color model that offers 256 hues for each color channel (red, green, blue).
32-bit color: A color model that offers 256 shades for each color channel (red, green and blue) as well as a 256-tone masking channel…
8-bit color: A color model that offers a color palette of 256 (the minimum number of colors displayed on a color monitor)…
Intermediate tones: Tonal values that are approximately in the middle of black and white…
Luminance : A measure of the brightness of a color or hue.
Subtractive Colors: (CMYK – Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, contrast- black) These are the colors consisting of turquoise, purple, yellow and black printing colors. What is meant by stickers is that these colors, when combined with certain percentages, form other colors. The printing process with these is known as the four color process and is the most common way to reproduce color images on a printing press.
Gradient: Blending, transitioning from one color or saturation to another.
Saturation: A measure of the intensity (saturation) of a color. For example, pink is less saturated than red, and sky blue is less saturated than dark blue.
Monochrome (Monochrome): Usually refers to a black and white monitor, but can also be used for a black and white image.
Neutrals: Shades of gray that do not have a distinctive color.
Pantone: A commercial color matching and ink mixing system used to fix certain colors. MÜY software supports the pantone system.
PMS : (Pantone Matching System) A system that allows designers to express colors by numbers.
Color wheel: Scheme similar to pie charts showing different colors and their relationships to each other. Often the color wheel is reduced to ten colors: mainly red, orange, yellow, light green, dark green, turquoise, blue, dark purple
Color space: The way a color image is defined and stored. Examples of color spaces are RGB, CMYK, and Kodak YCC.
RGB : ( Red , Green , Blue ) Red ( red), Green (green), Blue (blue) The three primary colors used to display an image on a color monitor.
Spot Color : (Custom Color) A specially used ink color outside the CMYK system (intermediate color). For example: a color from the Pantone series.
Additive Colors: (RGB – red, green, blue) A concept describing red, green and blue light. When red, green, and blue light are mixed in different percentages, a spectrum of visible colors is created. When each of these colors is used 100%, white light occurs. These are the colors used in monitors.
Local Color Correction: Adjustment to only a selected part of the image, rather than the entire image.
What is American Skin?
American binding is a binding technique in which documents are glued on the spine. With this method, the jerseys are cut from all four sides and glued to each other on their backs with plastic glue. It is possible to further strengthen the back surface with cheesecloth (rag cloth) or wire of different thicknesses. Except for products that must be used every day of the year, such as books or agendas that need to be used for a long time, paperback binding systems have been developed. This system is known as “American Binding” and “American Binding” in our country. In the American binding system, the back of the blended jerseys is shaved on machines with special surfaces and serrated knives. This part is pressed under high pressure by applying glue and attaching the cover. Today, high circulation (novels, storybooks, textbooks, etc.) ) is preferred in products because it is economical and fast. It is not preferred for binding books made of glossy paper.
What is Plastered Skin?
It is a very robust binding technique. There are two varieties. These ; What makes your book cover soft and thick is plastering with sponge inside, and the second one is plastering without sponge. On the cover, any kind of picture, text, etc. you want. available. It is a binding technique with a very high protection rate since the skin thickness is approximately 3mm and it is left approximately 1cm wider than the inner printing. In books that require long-term use, catalogs, albums, etc. work is preferred.
What is Wire Stitch?
It is the process of attaching jerseys or sheets of paper to each other with a stapler. It is made in two ways: back and top saddle stitches.
Saddle Stitching: Saddle stitching is the most cost-effective and easiest to apply in binding of magazines, brochures, newsletters and catalogues. The biggest advantage of this method is that the pages open completely and provide an easy and comfortable reading.
Top Stitching: Top saddle stitching method is used to bring together thick books, magazines, receipts, notepads, invoices and ticket stubs. The only drawback is that it does not allow the pages to be opened completely. For this reason, the wire stitching method is not preferred in publications such as dictionaries and encyclopedias that have the quality of reference and should have a long life.
What is Omega Saddle Stitch?
In order to attach the printed document (magazine, catalogue, etc.) to folders or cardboard files, it is the hump shape of the back of the saddle stitch.
What is Thread Stitch?
In this technique, after the jerseys are pierced from their backs; They are sewn with strong threads made of silk, cotton or nylon . The method of sewing with threads is now mechanized. These machines sew all the printed jerseys in succession and connected to each other. The sewn jerseys are then cut into groups that make up the content of the book and separated from each other. The thread sewing method is the longest-lasting binding technique. There are dozens of different sewing techniques, depending on the type of work to be printed.
What is Spiral Binding?
Spiral binding is the mechanism that is made of PVC or wire in multi-page works and ensures that your pages do not fall apart by punching the pages and attaching them to this mechanism. Spiral binding can be used in works up to 450 – 500 pages . It is also frequently used in table top calendars and wall calendars.
What is Spiral Skin?
In spiral binding, the same method is used in multi-page works, but the difference from the spiral is that the mechanism holes and the mechanism used are thicker. Spiral binding is more preferred in terms of usage.
What is Folding and Crimping?
It is the process of folding the printed material into a form by hand or machine. We can talk about four basic decimation techniques . Horizontal creasing , vertical creasing , accordion creasing and bundle creasing. 64 different kinds of creasing can be produced from these four creases .
Mechanical Binding: In this binding technique; After the cover and inner pages are brought together, spirals made of metal or plastic are attached to each other with screws and rivets. It is preferred for documents that require long-term use.
What is a jersey?
It is one of the basic calculation units used in printing and is a book section consisting of 16 pages, eight on the front and eight on the back. The layer is obtained by folding the paper three times in a clockwise direction. The print calculation is planned as 4, 8, 16 and 32… pages in multiples of 4. 4-page planning is expressed as quarter form, 8-page planning half form and 16-page planning full form.
What is Blending?
The process of arranging the jerseys side by side or nested in order to be turned into a book before the binding. In some cases, layer blending may also be required.
What is Perforation?
Invoices, waybills, cashier receipts, airplane tickets, etc. In order for the first copies of the tickets to be easily torn off, the breakout holes opened from the head or the back side are called perforation .
What is Pilyage?
Folders, brochures, magazines and similar printed materials are called folding (folding) places. Another name is conical, it is also called “conical throwing” .
What is Gofre (Embossing)?
It is called embossing by sprinkling special waffle powder on the area you want to emboss on the invitations, greeting cards, business cards and similar printed materials and baking it so that this part is on the upper side. The embossing process can also be done on letterpress printing machines with the help of a female and a male mold.
What is Foil – Gilding Printing?
It is a transfer printing obtained by heating a letterpress printing mold prepared from metal cliché or lead, using gilding (gold yellow or silver colored) paper placed on a binding cloth or similar material.
What is Gilding Painting (Bronzing)?
Powdered gold leaf, silver leaf etc. It is a dyeing process by sprinkling gilts onto a transparent printed substrate. It facilitates the spreading of gold, silver, copper and bronze colored powders applied to the printing of religious books, historical mosaics and luxury and expensive box and paper in the packaging industry.
Hump : The process of rounding the spines of the books on the binding. Multi-page and hard cover book organizer etc. It is a process done by hand (by hitting the back with a hammer) or by machine after thread sewing and gluing in order to increase the durability of the materials and make them look aesthetically pleasing.
Shrinking Package – What is Shrinking (Packaging)?
It is the process of wrapping the transparent plastic packaging material (foil) on the products and gluing the edges with the help of heat in order to send the printed materials such as magazines, books, brochures, catalogs that are ready for delivery to the mail individually or in pairs or triplets. It prevents the products from being damaged and dispersed by moisture during transportation and storage.
What is a fireplace?
Color-printed shirt, often cellophane, wrapped around the outside of paperback books. Chimneys are designed and printed like book covers and attached to hard covers. It makes your books look more elegant.
What is Binder Main Cover ( Side Paper ) ?
In a bound book, the leaf between the outer cover and the intermediate cover, which connects the inner sides of the outer covers to the binding. The first binding in our history was made by the Uighur Turks in the 7th – 9th centuries.
Broaching: To create a binding by sticking cardboard or paper on the back of the leaves or the sewn jerseys printed in the printing house.
Clip: Thick yarn, twine, used for sewing thick jerseys.
What Does the Interval Range Mean?
The space given between the back board and the front and back cover boards in order to ensure the easy opening of the bound book cover is called the margin gap . The book cover can be difficult to open when the contact gap is not adjusted well. It can be said that the margins of standard size (17.5 x 25 cm) book covers are approximately 8mm, but the contours vary according to the size of the book and require mastery.
Cue: A flat hand tool made of bone or wood used for folding papers used in bookbinding. Chisel: It is a 15 mm wide sharp-edged tool. It is used to open the slits that the strip will pass through in the flaps.
Binding Needles: These are quilt needles used for sewing books and knitting shiraze. In general, large and thin ones are preferred.
Sandpaper Files: These are pieces of cardboard or wood on which sandpaper is glued. Large ones should be large enough to be easily grasped with one hand. With this tool, the cardboard edges are rounded. Moreover, it smoothes the roughness on the cardboard or in the cut areas. Paint bowls, brushes, paint sprinkling wires and scrub brushes: These are used for coloring book edges, as well as for making colored paper.
Sewing Machine: It is the tool used for sewing works such as books and notebooks to be sewn by hand. It consists of a table of sufficient size at the bottom and a frame on which the tension rope or strips will be stretched on the top. It is made of wood.
What is Tulbent (Gaze)? : A sparsely fibrous, but sturdy cotton cloth that is placed on the back in bookbinding and to which the jerseys are sewn or glued.
What is Shiraze? : A thin strip of yarn knitted at both ends of the place where the books are attached to the head. String bookmark.
Dextrin: It is a quick-drying adhesive used on the back of envelopes and stamps, obtained by boiling the corn at 200 degrees.
Cellulose: It is used for sticking wallpapers and posters.
Skin paints: These are light-resistant covering paints used for printing on linen, leather, pandizot fabric and similar skin cover materials.
Vinly – Vinleks Skin Cloth: Its main material is PVC (POLY VINLY CLORUR). It is washable and durable. It can be made in various thickness.
Hot glue: Sold in beads or sheets. It is used by dissolving in water. It is used to stick the book cover and back.
Synthetic Adhesives: Its main material is PVC. There are those made with water, as well as those made with acetone and gasoline. Once these adhesives are applied, they will not come off again, even with water or gasoline.
Gummi Arabikum: Known as “Gum Arabic”. Small-leaf notebook is used for book works.
What is the Printing Surface Protection Process? : After the binding work is finished, books, magazines, brochures, files, etc. It is a process that is done to give a beautiful appearance on materials such as and to protect them from external factors. These are cellophane, lacquer and varnish. What is Cellophane Coating?
It is a thin gelatin coated on the printing surface by plastering in order to protect widely used printed materials such as printed brochures, folders and book covers from external factors (sun, moisture, oil, etc.). It can create a matte or shine effect. There are two types as matte and glossy cellophane.
What is Lacquer? : A substance applied to the printing surface like ink in order to protect the print against external factors and to give shine to the product in works such as brochures, book covers, catalogues, files, invitations. Its use in developed countries is gradually decreasing due to its carcinogenic effect.
What is Varnish? : It is one of the protection processes applied to the printing surface, and it is an easy-to-apply substance, although its durability and brightness are not as much as lacquer.
What is Lamination Coating? : It is the coating process that surrounds both sides of the material, on which the printed materials are coated with the help of heat and pressure, using a lamination coating material made of specially produced transparent PVC material and containing a special adhesive substance, making it durable and water resistant. Lamination sizes are available in various sizes and thicknesses such as A3, A4, A5 and so on.